Vitamin B4

Synonym: Adenine, 6-Aminopurine
CAS NO.: 73-24-5 (Base), 2922-28-3 (HCl), 321-30-2 (Sulfate)

Vitamin B4, also known as adenine, is one of the two purine bases used in forming nucleotides of the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. In DNA, adenine (A) binds to thymine (T) to assist in stabilizing the nucleic acid structures. In RNA, adenine binds to uracil (U). Adenine forms adenosine, a nucleoside, when attached to ribose, and deoxyadenosine when attached to deoxyribose, and it forms adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a nucleotide, when three phosphate groups are added to adenosine. Adenosine triphosphate is used in cellular metabolism as one of the basic methods of transferring chemical energy between reactions.

Adenine combines with the sugar ribose to form adenosine, which in turn can be bonded with from one to three phosphoric acid units, yielding the three nucleotides adenosine monophosphate , adenosine diphosphate, and adenosine triphosphate . These adenine derivatives perform important functions in cellular metabolism. Adenine is one of four nitrogenous bases utilized in the synthesis of nucleic acids . A modified form of adenosine monophosphate is thought to be a secondary messenger in the propagation of many hormonal stimuli. Adenine is an integral part of the structure of many coenzymes.

Vitamin B4 is a purine. Purines are six-membered rings attached to five membered rings. When Adenine is attached to DNA, it forms a bond with another molecule called Thymine, a pyrimidine, on the other side of the DNA strand. It is these bonds which give DNA its double-helix structure. The sequence of DNA, or the order in which nucleotides are placed, allows for the diversity among all living organisms. The importance of Adenine to RNA is similar to that of DNA.

Besides DNA and RNA, Adenine is also an important part of adenosine triphosphate, or ATP. Adenosine triphosphate is the nitrogenous base adenine bonded to a five carbon sugar. This molecule is important because it has the ability to phosphorylize, or add a phosphate group to, other molecules. This transfer of a phosphate group allows energy to be released. It is this energy which is used by cells in living organisms. This is why the molecules ATP, and its nitrogenous base Adenine, are so important. Adenine is one of the two purine bases used in forming nucleotides of the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. In DNA, adenine (A) binds to thymine (T) to assist in stabilizing the nucleic acid structures. In RNA, adenine binds to uracil (U).

Adenine forms adenosine, a nucleoside, when attached to ribose, and deoxyadenosine when attached to deoxyribose, and it forms adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a nucleotide, when three phosphate groups are added to adenosine. Adenosine triphosphate is used in cellular metabolism as one of the basic methods of transferring chemical energy between reactions. Adenosine plays an important role in biochemical processes, such as energy transfer - as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) - as well as in signal transduction as cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cAMP.

When administered intravenously, adenosine causes transient heart block in the AV node of the heart. In individuals suspected of suffering from a supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), adenosine is used to help identify the rhythm. Certain SVTs can be successfully terminated with adenosine. This includes any re-entrant arrhythmias that require the AV node for the re-entry (ie: AV reentrant tachycardia (AVRT), AV nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT)). In addition, atrial tachycardia can sometimes be terminated with adenosine. Fast rhythms of the heart that are confined to the atria (i.e. atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter) or ventricles (ie: monomorphic ventricular tachycardia) and do not involve the AV node as part of the re-entrant circuit are not typically effected by adenosine. Because of the effects of adenosine on AV node-dependent SVTs, adenosine is considered a class V antiarrhythmic agent.The pharmacological effects of adenosine are blunted in individuals who are taking methylxanthines (ie: caffeine (even coffee) and theophylline).

Vitamin B-4, also known as (Adenine) is considered to be a member of the B-Complex family. Vitamin B-4 (Adenine) is also considered to be a water-soluble vitamin. I want to underscore the term "considered" and the reason for this is, in factuality there is very little known about Vitamin B-4 (Adenine and it's characteristics.

However, it is known that Vitamin B-4 (Adenine) is a substance that acts as a co-enzyme with other substances, such as other vitamins to produce energy. Most of our energy comes from the mitochondria, which is the power producers of a cell. The mitochondria are like a power plant which burns fuel to produce the electricity that runs machinery.

The food we eat is the fuel that is "burned" inside the mitochondria to produce energy. In my opinion, complex carbohydrates produce the best fuel and it is my belief that most complex carbohydrates contain Vitamin B-4 (Adenine). A product of the above mentioned "burning" is called "adenosine triphosphate" or (ATP). An "adenosine triphosphate" (ATP) consists of three substances: (1) Adenine (Vitamin B-4 (2) ribose, and (3) three phosphate groups.

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is also produced during a process called "photosynthesis". You will recall, that earlier in this writing I discussed the process of photosynthesis and how it works. Photosynthesis is also the process by which the plant kingdom converts carbon dioxide and water into natural organic sugars.

Conversely, body cells produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in a more complicated process. First the body's digestive system breaks down the food we eat. The digestive system breaks carbohydrates down into natural sugar, proteins into amino-acids, and fats into fatty acids.

The blood carries these substances to all the cells in the body. In the cytoplasm, the natural sugars are broken down into pyruvic acid, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is produced. Since, we have now learned that Vitamin B-4 (Adenine) must be present in order for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to be produced, it is clearly conceivable that Vitamin B-4 (Adenine) is contained within these natural sugars (complex carbohydrates) that originate from the plant kingdom.

As you can see, it seems that Vitamin B-4 (Adenine) must be present in order for the body to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Still, there is much that is unclear about this process. However, as research on Vitamin B-4 (Adenine) progresses I believe it will be more clearly identified. This will enable us to better understand and make an informed decision concerning the importance of the role that Vitamin B-4 (Adenine) plays in our health.

Natural Sources:
Brewer's yeast, whole grains (breads and cereals), raw unadulterated honey, bee pollen, royal jelly, propolis, most fresh vegetables, most fresh fruits. It is believed that all complex carbohydrates contain varying amounts of Vitamin B-4 (Adenine).

Vitamin B-4 (Adenine) is also probably found in the following herbs:
Blessed thistle, blue cohosh, burdock, capsicum (cayenne), caraway, cascara sagrada, catnip, cloves, couch grass, ginger,
golden seal, hawthorn, hops, jojoba, kelp, lady's slipper, mullein, rose hips, sage, sarsaparilla, spearmint, strawberry, thyme, yucca.

NOTE: Although it is considered or believed that the above natural sources do contain Vitamin B-4 ( Adenine), I want to underscore the fact that at this time it is in part only scientific theory. This meaning that there is a great deal pertaining to Vitamin B-4 (Adenine) that has not been confirmed or factuated.

Notwithstanding, I believe that soon Vitamin B-4 (Adenine) as it relates to our health, will be substantiated by naturopathic doctors and scientists relative to empirical evidence. Empirical evidence, meaning something proven by experiment and experience.

HERBAL medications are teeming with nutrients, and the body WILL readily utilize them in its behalf... actually detoxifying and rebuilding the system, therefore enhancing one's health.

Deficiency Symptoms:
The following symptoms would be most likely associated with
Vitamin B-4 (Adenine) deficiency: Retarded growth rate, blood and skin disorders, constipation, nausea, gastrointestinal disturbances, muscle weakness, hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), sensitivity to insulin, physical and mental depression, anemia, fatigue, vertigo (dizziness), allergies, prone to infections, weakened immune system response.

NOTE: If two or more of the above deficiency symptoms are present you may perhaps need Vitamin B-4 (Adenine)
supplementation. However, at the present time I am not aware of any natural concentrated form of Vitamin B-4 (Adenine) that is available for supplementation. In light of this, I would suggest that you include a greater intake of complex carbohydrates into your dietary regimen.

A dietary regimen supplying an adequate intake of complex carbohydrates would for all intent and purposes, eliminate the
possibility of, or the probability of, a Vitamin B-4 (Adenine)

Keep in mind, it is considered unwise for a layperson to attempt to treat one's self therapeutically. In light of this, you should always seek the services of a doctor that is formally schooled and trained in the profession of natural health care.

Acts as a co-enzyme with other vitamins to enhance metabolism. Helps to alleviate fatigue and debility. Increases antibody formation in counteracting infection. Acts as a precursor for assimilation of other B-vitamins. Strengthens the immune system response. Promotes cell formation and normal growth. Prevents cellular mutation and free radical formation. Helps to balance blood sugar levels. Increases transit time of the intestinal tract.

Alcoholic beverages, cola drinks, most soft drinks (other than natural juices), coffee and tea (caffeinated and decaffeinated), chocolate (cocoa), inorganic mineral water (tap, well, spring), polluted air, refined sugar and refined synthetic sugar substitutes, overcooking foods (particularly in excess of 130 degrees), refined and processed foods, commercial synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, and most drug medications.

NOTE: Antagonists for Vitamin B-4 (Adenine) would for the most part, be the same as it would be for other water-soluble B-vitamins. However, there may prove to be some exceptions that are unknown at this time.p>v>


Loss of energy may be helped by a greater intake of Vitamin B-4 (Adenine) (complex carbohydrates). May help in stabilizing health problems that are considered retro-active, such as cancer. Vitamin B-4 (Adenine) is probably needed to enhance and improve cognitive skills performance. Probably plays a vital role in red and white blood cell formation. Considered to be a catalyst in helping to improve lactation for a nursing mother.

May Be Useful In Treatment Of:
ALIMENTARY CANAL: Cancer, Constipation, Indigestion (dyspepsia), Ulcer (duodenal and peptic).
BLOOD/CIRCULATORY SYSTEM: Anemia, Arteriosclerosis,
Atherosclerosis, Cholesterol (high LDL), Diabetes, Hypertension (high blood pressure), Phlebitis, Triglycerides (high).
BRAIN/NERVOUS SYSTEM: Alzheimer's disease, Headache, Insomnia, Multiple sclerosis, Neuritis, Parkinson's disease.
EYES: Cataracts, Night blindness (loss of visual purple).
GALLBLADDER: Bile obstruction, Gallstones.
GLANDS: Adrenal exhaustion, Adrenal cortex rejuvenation,
Hypothyroidism, Lymph stimulation, Thymus shrinkage.
HAIR/SCALP: Alopecia (baldness), Dandruff.
HEART: Arteriosclerosis, Atherosclerosis, Hypertension (high blood pressure), Heart palpitation.
IMMUNE SYSTEM: Free radical formation, Infection (bacterial and viral), Wounds (healing).
JOINTS: Arthritis (osteo and rheumatoid), Gout.
LEGS: Phlebitis.
LUNGS/RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: Allergies, Asthma, Bronchitis,
Sinusitis, Tuberculosis.
MUSCLES: Aches, Atrophy, Cramps.
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM: Infertility, Vaginitis.
SKIN: Acne, Psoriasis, Wrinkles.
TEETH/GUMS: Bleeding gums, Pyorrhea, Sore gums.
MISCELLANEOUS: Aging (premature), Cancer, Fatigue, Infection,
Mental illness, Retarded growth, Stress (distress).




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